Sunday, July 5, 2020
Introduction (Approximately 1min.) Attention Getter: Have you or someone you know gotten a call from IRS asking for money? They may start to threaten you that you will go to jail. If so, it is very likely that it is scammer. Background and Audience Relevance: According to The Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration (TIGTA) report in March 6, 2018, there have been over 12,716 victims that fell for IRS phone scams and paid more than $63 million since October 2013. These people are unaware that IRS officials do not call their client for confidential information through a phone call. They will always mail to taxpayer and they will never threaten to arrest the taxpayer for not paying taxes. This is just one example of cybercrime. With more advanced technology, this will result the online community to be more dangerous. Since technology is becoming an important part of us, it is crucial that we know how to protect ourselves from cybercrime. Speaker Credibility: As a Cyber Security Engineering major, I am here to inform you about the most common cyber-crimes that is happening around us and how common it is to be the victim of cyber-attacks. Thesis: In this speech, you will learn about three common types of cybercrimes, which are phishing, hacking and identity theft. Preview of Main Points: First, I will talk about phishing and different types of phishing attacks. Second, I will discuss about hacking and how someone can become a victim. Finally, I will talk about identity theft and how it impacts an individual and other online company. Transition to first main point: To get started, I am going to talk about what phishing is and different types of phishing attacks. Body (Approximately 3 ?-5 ? mins.) A. Main Point 1: Phishing is a fraudulent way of getting confidential information from the user through email. These emails are written so eloquently that it can trick anyone if you dont look carefully. 1. Sub point 1: There are multiple kinds of attacks caused by phishing. Some includes Deceptive attacks, Malware attacks and DNS-based attacks. Deceptive attacks are when the users are asked to give out their personal information in the scam messages. Malware attacks is when malware is downloaded after opening the email. DNS-based attack is when users look up websites, but it will redirect to an unsafe website. Based on the book, Phishing and Counter-Measures, published in 2006 by Markus Jakobsson and Seven Myers, the author stated that most scammers send the call to action email and tell the user that there is something wrong with their information and ask them to click on the fraudulent website to correct their information. 2. Sub point 2: In December 2015, the Intel created a quiz to see if the users can distinguish the phishing emails with safe emails. Out of 19,458, majority of them of choose at one of the phishing emails and only 3% of them got all correct. This suggest that it is very difficult to find the difference between spam email and original company email. scammers will use phishing emails to have user click on it to get to access to the computer. 3. Sub point 2: Transition (summary, signpost, preview): Now that you learned about the different types of phishing. I will now move onto my next points, which will cover different types of cybercrime which is hacking. Main Point 2: Hacking is when someone goes into another persons computer without the permission of the owner and get in the server by damaging the weakest point of the operating system. This can result the leak of confidential information. 1. Sub point 1: The three types of hackers are white hat hacker, grey hat hacker and black hat hacker. White hat hackers are cyber security specialists, who work on advancing their security system to make cyberspace a safe place for users. Grey hats hackers are also cyber security experts, but they may sometimes, go against the laws or try unethical approach to improve the protection of user. Black hats are hackers who practice unethical way to get into server by attacking and damaging the server for their personal gain. 2. Sub point 2 According to Professor Fonash, a Cyber Security Professor in George Mason University and worked with National Security Association stated in September 21, 2018 that one of the big issues with regulation with hacking is that each country has their own laws and regulations for cybercrime. In some cases, nations like third world countries do not have any strict laws. So, one way to deal with cybercrime is by having consistent laws internationally. He also suggested that to be in safe in internet, one should be careful and not provide lots information about their personal life in social media. Another best way to secure yourself in internet is by having unique password of your confidential information. It should be long with special characters but must be personal to you. Due to the increasing population of users, the cyberspace more dangerous place so, having unique password is important. Transition (summary, signpost, preview): Now that we talked about hacking and ways to deal with it, let move on to our final points, which is about identity theft and how it impacts the victim and the third party. B. Main Point 3: Identity theft is when someone steal your personal information to have financial gain or something that will profit them. 1. Sub point 1: Most common information that identity theft steal, bank information, your social security number or simple thing as your email. Then, they make an account or service such as telephone service or bank account under the victims name. The worst part of this is sometimes, the victim does not even realize that they are victim of identity theft until they apply for loan or paying new house. 2. Sub point 2: Not only does it affect the consumer, but it also has impact on the online company because consumers are less likely to trust them and make them avoid making any transaction online. In long run, people are going to stop making any purchase due to suspicion. 3. Transition and signal closing: Now that I have covered all my main points, let wrap thing up Conclusion (Approximately 30 seconds-1 minute) Restate Thesis: By listening to this speech, hopefully everyone here will now have a deeper understanding of the cybercrime and how it does not only affect famous people, but it affects ordinary people like us. Review Main Points: In this speech, we learned about cybercrime and three common cybercrimes, which are phishing, hacking and identity theft. We also learned about the ways we can protect ourselves in virtual world. Memorable Closer: So next time, when you get a call from IRS or any government officials that ask for personal information or money, you can simply hang up the phone. References Global Issues in Context. (2018). Hacking. Retrieved from https://go.galegroup.com/ps/retrieve.do?resultListType=RELATED_DOCUMENTsearchType=tsuserGroupName=mcle14741_einPS=truecontentSegment=prodId=GICdocId=GALE|CP3208520475it=r IR-2018-40. (2018, March). Phone scams pose serious threat; Remain on IRS Dirty dozen list of tax scams. Retrieved from https://www.irs.gov/newsroom/phone-scams-pose-serious-threat-remain-on-irs-dirty-dozen-list-of-tax-scams Jakobsson, M., Myers, S. (2007). Phishing and countermeasures: understanding the increasing problem of electronic identity theft. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Interscience. Morgan, S. (2017). Cyber crime damages $6 trillion by 2021. Cybersecurity Ventures. Schupak, A. (2015, May 12). Majority of americans fall for email phishing scams. CBS News.
Wednesday, July 1, 2020
Naguib MahfouzÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, Midaq Alley, is a story about a group of people living in an alley in Egypt in the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s. Already, from that description, the reader can see that the women of this tale have a significant disadvantage in equality. Surprisingly enough, the women prove to be very strong, independent, and powerful, despite the novelÃ¢â¬â¢s setting and time. But, is that altogether true? There are many instances where the women rise above and take things for themselves when they want it. They beat their husbands, call the men out on their sins, swindle their way toward a higher rank, and try to escape the reality of their alley life, yet, no matter their dominance, they are always defeated or put back in their place by the male characters of the book. Midaq Alley is a representation of feminism in the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s, signifying that even in a male-led society in Africa, women can and will do what it takes to be equal, or, in a sense, be the dominant sex. Women have powerful attributes that allow them to do this, but, in the end, their powers turn out to be their own downfall, because it is still a male-led society. Midaq Alley entails the stories of many people living in the alley, but, arguably, the main focus is on the character of Hamida, an independent and ambitious young woman living with her foster mother. She is described as a very pretty girl with Ã¢â¬Å"black, beautiful eyes, the pupils and whites of which contrasted in a most striking and attractive way.Ã¢â¬ (Mahfouz 14). Yet, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦she could take on an appearance of strength and determination which was most unfeminine.Ã¢â¬ (Mafouz 14). It is very evident that the narration of HamidaÃ¢â¬â¢s beauty is written from a male perspective, drawing out the way Hamida uses or, perhaps to state it more clearly, does not use her femininity to prove her feminist way. In his article, Ã¢â¬Å"Narrating the marginalized Oriental female: silencing the colonized Subaltern,Ã¢â¬ Saddik Gohar states that Ã¢â¬Å"Even in episodes in which [Hamida] was given focus, the readers see her through the spectacles of the male imperial narrator em bodying the voice of the author or via the eyes of the male characters in the novelÃ¢â¬ (Gohar 52). Already we can see how HamidaÃ¢â¬â¢s sexually pleasing attributes sway the narrator and the male characterÃ¢â¬â¢s even before she begins her journey or proves the descriptions we see of her. As an established beautiful and strong woman in this alley, HamidaÃ¢â¬â¢s story is revealed. She has a difficult time finding a husband that suits her independent ways and desire for wealth above love and affection. She longs to marry for riches, and she hates the idea of the domestic life of raising children. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦the most commonly said thing about her was that she hated children and that this unnatural trait made her wild and totally lacking in the virtues of femininityÃ¢â¬ (Mahfouz 22). She wants to see the world, but the only way she can think of following her dreams is to marry a rich man. In this era and location, that truly is her only escape. She wishes she had been ed ucated as a young child like the Jewish women in her town, but, Ã¢â¬Å"her age and ignorance had deprived her of their opportunitiesÃ¢â¬ (Mahfouz 22). According to Sheridene Barbara Oersen, in her thesis essay from the University of the Western Cape, the feminist movement of western culture was just spreading its wings toward the East, announcing that women are capable of receiving a proper education. It soon became policy, but in OersenÃ¢â¬â¢s words, Ã¢â¬Å"government policy and societal beliefs are seldom harmonious and most families did not see the necessity of having their daughters educated. The crucial aspect of raising a girl was to ensure that she would make a good wife, and because Hamida is from the poorest class of society, she has not been afforded the opportunity of a basic educationÃ¢â¬ (Oersen 62). Because of HamidaÃ¢â¬â¢s independence and unfeminine-like attitude, she soon realizes that she can take her life into her own hands. When she is discussing marriage with her mother, she says, I am not the one who is chasing marriage, but marriage is chasing me. I will give it a good run, too!Ã¢â¬ (Mahfouz 15). This indicates that she feels trapped in a situation that she wants to get out of. She feels as if she is above the alley and the people that live there. She first reluctantly accepts a proposal from Abbas, the barber, after he promises to get a job outside the alley, but later in the book, she finds other means of escaping her alley prison. She, and other women in the book, escape their plights by using their cunning deception and sexual charm. Hamida, when starting her love affair with Abbas, finds ways to manipulate the man so she can get what she desires. She deceives the one that actually loves her, because she knows he wonÃ¢â¬â¢t give her the wealth and adventure she longs for. She forces him into leaving the place he enjoys living in and to becoming a man he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t meant to be. Stephanie Hasenfus puts it quite simply in her article, Ã¢â¬Å"Destroy or Be Destroyed: Contending with Toxic Social Structures in Naguib MahfouzÃ¢â¬â¢s Midaq Alley.Ã¢â¬ She states, Ã¢â¬Å"[Hamida] transforms marriage into a tactical endeavor from which she hopes to maximize potential luxury in her lifeÃ¢â¬ (Hasenfus 99). Hamida does this by purposefully displaying her beauty and comparing herself to other women. According to the text: Ã¢â¬Å"She was well aware of her attire; a faded cotton dress, an old cloak and shoes with timeworn soles. Nevertheless, she draped her cloak in such a way that it emphasized her ample hips and her ful l and rounded breasts. The cloak revealed her trim ankles, on which she wore a bangle; it also exposed her black hair and attractive bronze faceÃ¢â¬ (Mahfouz 21-22). And, Ã¢â¬Å"She walked along with her companions, proud in the knowledge of her beauty, impregnable in the armor of her sharp tongue, and pleased that the eyes of passersby settled on her more than on the othersÃ¢â¬ (Mahfouz 23). Hamida is not only a beautiful girl with an unfeminine attitude, but she also knows how to attract men with these attributes. Hasenfus powerfully acknowledges this by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"For Hamida, remaining single inevitably means letting old age steal her beauty while she remains stranded in the alley. She recognizes that her beauty is her only advantage, her only source of power. Her beauty allows her to seduce men, and thereby, to control themÃ¢â¬ (Hasenfus 99). Along with sexual charm, women have other ways of proving themselves superior to men in the novel. Beauty is a strong asset used to dominate, but being able to tactfully use it as a ruse for the ultimate goal requires cunning and deceptive strength. In HamidaÃ¢â¬â¢s story, we already know that she is independent, strong, and deceptive with one goal in mind: to marry a man outside of the alley that has riches beyond compare. Hasenfus explains while describing HamidaÃ¢â¬â¢s goals and modernity of her ways that Ã¢â¬Å"in this forward-thinking fashion, she transforms marriage into a tactical endeavor from which she hopes to maximize potential luxury in her lifeÃ¢â¬ (Hasenfus 99). It is no mystery how Hamida cunningly deceives the men around her. Her beauty is used in a clever display of her dominance. Abbas is determined to marry her, and, because of her desire for riches, he feels obligated to leave the alley to work for the British Army though he is quite content with how things are. In the novel, Hamida is only interested in his proposed idea of working in the war to gain mo re money, and Ã¢â¬Å"if he were successful he could certainly provide some of the things she craved. A disposition like hers, no matter how rebellious and unmanageable, could be pacified and tamed with moneyÃ¢â¬ (Mahfouz 46). Hamida is a prime example of a woman using deception to get what she wants, but she is not the only woman in the alley. Yet another woman uses tact to reach her goal, despite her increasing age. Miss Afify and Umm Hamida trick a younger man into marrying Miss Afify by buying her gold teeth and giving the man a younger picture of herself. Miss Afify is an aging widow that recently decided to marry once again. The text does not specify exactly why she has decided this, but Oersen, has an astounding way of looking at it. She says, Ã¢â¬Å"It appears that over the years, Mrs Saniyya Afify has found herself increasingly isolated from society. Despite her wealth, she has no social status because she is an unmarried woman.Ã¢â¬ (Oersen 57). This makes a lot of sense when looking at women at the time. Women in that time and place could be very rich and prosperous, but without being married, they lack the title of a prosperous individual. A title comes with a man, so, to have a high place in society, a woman must be married. Sadly, Oersen relays that, Ã¢â¬Å"Through the character of Mrs Afify, it can be assumed that even wealth and the many political changes in favour of women are not enough to crush traditional societal moresÃ¢â¬ (Oersen 58). Saniyya Afify achieves this marriage a comical and unconventional way, however. Because she lacks her youthful beauty, she and Umm Hamida come up with a plan to deceive the match Umm Hamida found for her. The two begin by discussing the man and his job and wealth. Then Umm Hamida says that he wanted a picture of Miss Afify, to which this dialogue takes place: The widow fidgeted and her face blushed as she said, Why, I havent had my picture taken in a long time. Dont you have an old photo? She nodded toward a picture on the bookcase in the middle of the room. Umm Hamida leaned over and examined it carefully. The photo must have been more than six years old, taken at a time when Mrs. Afify still had some fullness and life in her. She looked at the picture then back at its subject. A very good likeness. Why, it might have been taken only yesterday. May God reward you generously, sighed Mrs. Afify. Umm Hamida put the photograph, with its frame, into her pocket and lit the cigarette offered her (Mahfouz 64). Not only are they giving the man an old photo of Miss Afi fy, but Umm Hamida also tells him that she is in her 40Ã¢â¬â¢s and not the late 50Ã¢â¬â¢s age she is. Along with this deception, Mrs. Afify buys a set of golden teeth to cover the fact that her teeth have been rotting and falling out with her age. For her part, Hamida not only deceives Abbas in the beginning, cunningly sending him off to make riches for herself, but also deceives him later after she becomes a prostitute. Gohar says that Ã¢â¬Å"when she encountered Abbas in part thirty-two, she cunningly moved him against Farag in order to get rid of both males according to critical allegationsÃ¢â¬ (Gohar 56). Hamida wishes to get out of her situation, yet, she is disgusted by the thought of going back to the alley and living with Abbas for the rest of her life. Her deceptive strength takes a hold of her, and she, once again, brings Abbas to doing something he would never do. Hussain tries to warn Abbas, and being like a brother to Hamida, he can see through her beauty and deception. Oersen says, HussainÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction is harsh but completely in line with traditional social valuesÃ¢â¬ ¦. Abbas feels that the man should be punished and although Hussain agrees, his absolute disgust with Hamida is expressed as follows: Ã¢â ¬ËWhy didnÃ¢â¬â¢t you murder her? If I were in your position, I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have hesitated a minute. IÃ¢â¬â¢d have throttled her on the spot and then butchered her lover and disappearedÃ¢â¬ ¦ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s what you should have done, you fool! [Mahfouz,1992: 279]Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Oersen 59). HamidaÃ¢â¬â¢s deception can only go so far, and, though it works on Abbas, Hussain is immune to it. There is another man that is immune to HamidaÃ¢â¬â¢s deceptive ways, and he leads us into the last section, revealing how although women in the novel try to be the dominant sex, they ultimately fail due to societal customs and beliefs. This man is Ibraham Farah. Hamida is the most prominent key to seeing the strength the women of this culture possess. She represents Egypt as a whole, and allows Farah to take advantage of her just to prove how strong she is. In allowing the man to dominate her every moment, she feels she is getting the upper hand and being the dominant one in the relatio nship. She, like many women, uses her body and sexual charm to lord over men, and, in return, she soon realizes her mistake. To get on top in the society that the novel depicts, women must sacrifice something. This could include freedom, virginity, innocence, happiness, morality, or dignity. Hamida loses her virginity, morality, and innocence when she runs off with Ibraham, though she feels she is dominant in the situation. She wants love from him, but all she gets is his love for the money she is making him. She tries to tie him down, but he wonÃ¢â¬â¢t have it, and, in return, she falls into his trap. Gohar states that Hamida believed [Farah] fell in love with her like others and was intoxicated by his warm words: Ã¢â¬ËThis is not your quarter, nor are these people relatives of yours. You are completely different. You do not belong here at all. How can you live among these people? Who are they compared to you? You are a princess in a shabby cloakÃ¢â¬â¢ (143) (Gohar 55). Sadly, Hamida is simply receiving what she dished out to Abbas. Farah woos her with his kind words, promises, and wealth, bringing her to her ultimate downfall. No matter what the women of the novel do, however, the social order of the time and place simply can not allow a woman to dominate. It was clear from the beginning that Hamida would not get her way, and if she did, she would lose part of herself, but why was this so evident? Bede Scott, in his article, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢A Raging SiroccoÃ¢â¬â¢: Structures of Dysphoric Feeling in Midaq Alley,Ã¢â¬ sheds some light on the problem. He says: Ã¢â¬Å"The intervention of colonial modernity in the novel radically destabilizes the old social order, yet without implementing a new order that can be easily comprehended by the characters or assimilated into their lives. And because they are unable to understand fully the processes of transformation they are undergoing, because these processes are not entirely visible to their consciousness, many of the characters internalize a vague sense of social crisis which eventually resurfaces in the form of displaced angerÃ¢â ¬ (Scott 33). Because this time in Egypt is a huge moment in the transition between the old ways and the new ways, the people of Midaq Alley are agitated. They long for the new, but cannot let go of the old. The women face this in a way the men do not realize. They see progress and realize that this is their time to show their true colors, yet, because the men are still tied to old cultural traditions, the women get no further in their pursuit of equality. Women, specifically Hamida, in the novel Midaq Alley, are faced with a growing sense of the outside world, and a newfound means to reach their goals and find dominance in a relationship with a man. No matter the way they try, however, society can not allow them to reach these heights, and places them back down in a domestic situation, cooking and cleaning and raising children just as they have always done. Women have strong attributes that allows them to find ways around these societal norms, but, in the end, a valuable part of a woman can be lost when they try such feats. Works Cited Gohar, Saddik. Ã¢â¬Å"Narrating the marginalized Oriental female: silencing the colonized subaltern.Ã¢â¬ Acta Neophilologica, vol. 48, no. 1-2, 2015, pp. 49Ã¢â¬â66., doi:10.4312/an.48.1- 2.49-66. Hasenfus, Stephanie. Ã¢â¬Å"Destroy or Be Destroyed: Contending with Toxic Social Structures in Naguib MahfouzÃ¢â¬â¢s Midaq Alley.Ã¢â¬ The Oswald Review: An International Journal of Undergraduate Research and Criticism in the Discipline of English, vol. 15, no. 1, 1 Jan. 2015, pp. 95Ã¢â¬â108. The United States Military Academy, West Point, New York. Available at: http://scholarcommons.sc.edu/tor/vol15/iss1/7 MahÃ £fuÃâz, NajiÃâb. Midaq Alley. Translated by Trevor Li Gassick, The American University in Cairo Press, 1966. Oersen, Sheridene Barbara. Ã¢â¬Å"The representation of women in four of Naguib Mahfouzs realist novels: Palace walk, Palace of desire, Sugar street and Midaq alley.Ã¢â¬ The University of the Western Cape, The University of the Western Cape, 2006. S cott, Bede. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Å"A Raging SiroccoÃ¢â¬ : Structures of Dysphoric Feeling in Midaq Alley.Ã¢â¬ Journal of Arabic Literature, vol. 42, no. 1, Jan. 2011, pp. 29Ã¢â¬â48., doi:10.1163/157006411575792.
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
Professionalism is an adherence to a set of values comprising both a formally agreed-upon code of conduct and the informal expectations of colleagues, clients and society. The key values include acting in a patients interest, responsiveness to the health needs of society, maintaining the highest standards of excellence in the practice of medicine and in the generation and dissemination of knowledge. In addition to medical knowledge and skills, medical professionals should present psychosocial and humanistic qualities such as caring, empathy, humility and compassion, as well as social responsibility and sensitivity to peoples culture and beliefs. All these qualities are expected of members of highly trained professions. There are manyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦To be a person who is deemed professional you have to have a sense of leadership. Leadership in the healthcare field means you have to be willing to teach others. You help build and maintain a culture that facilitates professionalism. As a leader you do not participate in workplace pranks. Another important aspect of professionalism is honor and integrity. To have honor and integrity in the workplace you need to be forthcoming with information; and not hold important information for your own benefit. You can admit your own errors. You deal with confidential information discreetly and appropriately. One of the most important attributes regarding professionalism is respect. You have to respect institutional staff and all staff representatives. You have to respect patients rights and dignity and their privacy and confidentiality. A person who is professional has to have caring, compassionate and have communication. You treat the patient as an individual taking into account lifestyle, religious beliefs, and ethnicity. You communicate bad news with sincerity and compassion. You deal with sickness, death, and dying in a professional manner with the patient and the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s family members. Being a radiation therapist means you are a part of a multi disciplinary approach to curing cancer. Being part of a multi disciplinary approach means you have to have the professional aspect of teamwork. Teamwork is an intracle part of everyShow MoreRelatedProfessionalism Within The Health Care Field1375 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe lack of professionalism in the workplace is a problem in the health care field. This can be improved by incorporating workshops on professionalism within orientations and enforcing a code of ethics along with the proper protocol of working in healthcare. Although there is no exact definition for professionalism many would define this as a set of values or qualities that include behaviors and relationships that helps the person to trust their advisor. (Brown, 2013) Over the course of many doctors/Read MoreProfessional Issues Of A Medical Professional1246 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesChinwenwa Iheme Professional Issues A Medical professional is someone in the healthcare field. Medical Professionals are part of a team that delivers services related to human s or animalÃ¢â¬â¢s health. Examples of medical professionals are physicians; nurses; medical laboratory scientists, and dentists. As medical professional, you must attain a level of education and certification required for a particular medical profession. There are many medical professions; each requires some level of educationRead MoreSonographer-Patient Interactions in the Health Care Field Essay849 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSonographer-Patient Interactions in the Health Care Field The profession of sonography has been around for over thirteen years; however, if one were to ask the average American what the occupation of a Sonographer entitled, there would likely be a wide-range of answers. 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3.1 Offences where Mandatory Sentencing is Applied Mandatory sentencing currently applies for many offences. Stated in the CCA, section 279(4), adults who are guilty of murder must be sentenced to life imprisonment. Under section 90(1a) of the SA it also states life imprisonment must be imposed with a minimum of 15 years without parole. Section 318(2) of the CCA states if a person is over 16 but under 18 and committs a serious assult against any officer (police, transit, security etc) a term of detention of at least 3 months must be imposed. Section 401 of the CCA only states there must be a mandatory fine paid if a person commits burglary. More recently in 1996 the WA government introduced the Ã¢â¬Å"three strikes and you re inÃ¢â¬ law under theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Section 297, Grievous bodily harm, states Ã¢â¬Å"any person who unlawfully does grievous bodily harm to another is guilty of a crime, and is liable to imprisonment for 10 years.Ã¢â¬ Section 297(2) states if a motor vehicle is stolen during this act it will result in an increase to 14 years imprisonment. 4.0 Benefits of Mandatory Sentencing This section needs to summarise and explain the academic and legal argument regarding mandatory sentencing and benefits of reducing judicial discretion in sentencing decisions. (Judicial discretion is the power of the judiciary to make some legal decisions according to their discretion (what they think should be done) You will need to cite relevant journal articles here as they will be the best sources of information. You are welcome to cite literature which discusses mandatory sentencing in other jurisdictions, however make sure you link it back to your topic. Hint: the benefits relate to an increase in consistency across sentencing decisions and increasing community safety by enforcing terms of imprisonment. There has been long been debate between academics and policy (legal) makers about the impact of mandatory sentencing and benefits of reducing judicial discretion in sentencing decisions. There are a couple of benefits of mandatory sentencing including an increase in community safety and the removal of personal bias which results in an increase of consistency across sentencing decisions. 4.1 Community Safety After mandatory
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Introduction Equal employment opportunity (EEO) began when President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued Executive Order 8802 in 1941. Executive Order 8802 ensured that every American citizen was guaranteed equal employment opportunities in World War II defense contracts, regardless of race, creed, color, or national origin. Today, the EEO legislation has affected businesses. The topics discussed will be, how the organization, as well as the individual employee, has rights, the effect it has on the customers, how it can improve an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s public relations, how it can diversify the workforce, and the effect it has on Human Resources Management of an organization. Organization and Employee Rights A. Equal Pay Act of 1963 Ã¢â¬Å"ToÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦With this act, employers are further protected from discrimination. Employees are allowed to sue employers to enforce the provisions of the act. Effects on Customers Equal employment opportunity affects the customers in various ways. If the employees working are satisfied and happy, the customer will see it when the employees help them. For example, a customer walks into Burger King to get something to eat, but the cashier is unhappy that a coworker is getting paid more than him for doing the same job and having the same time in the workforce, so the cashier takes it out on the customer. The customer will probably never return to the business again. If the employees work in a happy environment, they will provide better services. Improvement of Public Relations By applying EEO to an organization, the public relations will improve. In society, one of the main jobs is to keep good appearances. An organization wants to promote that everything in their company works perfectly and equally. By maintaining good appearances, the organization has a greater probability that other organizations will want to work with them. Also, it will attract the best workers because they will want to work for an organization that is fair.Show MoreRelatedEqual Employment Opportunity Essay1514 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Throughout the years the United States has faced many challenges with equal employment opportunities for everyone. The United States has developed The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, also known as the EEOC, to enforce laws that help prevent everyone from being treated unfairly when it comes to employment options. The EEOC has established stipulations and overlooks all of the federal equal employment opportunity reg ulations, practices and policies (Ã¢â¬Å"Federal Laws Prohibiting Job DiscriminationRead MoreThe Equal Employment Opportunity Commission1454 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages THE EQUAL EMPLOYMENT 2 This paper is intended to shed light to the author on a Federal government website in lieu to its usefulness in human resource management. 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The EEOC is not out to getRead MoreThe Equal Employment Opportunity Commission1632 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Discrimination has quickly become one of the top causes of lawsuits facing businesses today. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), the federal agency responsible for enforcing anti-discrimination law, reported that individuals filed 88,778 discrimination charges in 2014 alone- 35% of th ose claiming race discrimination and 29.3% claiming gender discrimination (Ã¢â¬Å"Charge StatisticsÃ¢â¬ ). Discrimination is defined as the Ã¢â¬Å"treatment or consideration of, or making a distinctionRead MoreEqual Employment Opportunity And Hrm782 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesunderstand equal employment opportunity and HRM, one can examine the reasonable accommodations employers must make in regards to religion and disability. 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When having a diversity of people working for a company, different types of personalities intermingle with each other on a day Ã¢â¬â to Ã¢â¬â day basis. Even though having a diverse group of people coexist in the workforce can serve a huge benefit to the company, it can also lead to problems amongst coworkers. In order to make sure everyone is treated fairly, theRead MoreThe Equal Employment Opportunity Commission2153 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesThe Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is the federal agency charged with the enforcement of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964,1 the Americans with Disabilities Act,2 and the Age Discrimination in Employment Act.3 Five commissioners appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate govern the EEOC. Each commissioner serves a five-year term, and no more than three commissioners can be from the same political party.4 The President also appoints a General Counsel of the CommissionRead MoreEqual Employment Opportunity ( Eeo )1460 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPhase 3 Ã¢â¬â Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Critical Thinking Questions: How will you ensure your company is an EEO Employer? As with our student population, we at the Northwestern Academy believe our teachers and faculty should be as talented as possible. This is the reason that qualifications are the primary consideration when considering potential applicants for our faculty. Race, religion, sex and gender will not be factors in who is hired. However, diversity not only brings advantages in
Childhood Cognitive Development and Exercise Monica Compton Dr. Laura McClelland Taylor University November 23, 2016 In current times everyone is constantly surrounded by old and new technology and people, especially children, are constantly using it. A Topical Approach to Life-Span Development talks about how the increased screen time that children are having is linked with lower levels of activity (Santrock, 2016). Activity levels during childhood and the effects it has on physical development has been a focus recently with initiatives by people like Michael Obama and campaigns like the NFLÃ¢â¬â¢s Play 60. With obesity more than doubling in children and quadrupling in adolescents in the past 30 years, there has been an increased focus on how diet and physical activity can play a part in the prevention and treating of obesity in children because of the negative health effects it can have (Ã¢â¬Å"Childhood Obesity Facts,Ã¢â¬ 2015). In addition to the importance of exercise in physical development, exercise can also be linked to childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive skills (Santrock, 2016). It can h ave benefits for childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s memory, attention, and future cognitive performance. One way in which researchers have shown that exercise can benefit cognitive skills is with childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s memory. A study by Kamijo et al. showed that physical activity can improve working memory. Working memory, as defined by Santrock, is where Ã¢â¬Å"individuals manipulate and assemble information when they makeShow MoreRelatedChildren Are Our Pillars For Tomorrow Essay1720 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesis to understand child development by using case study method along with child observations and parent interview. Given the circumstances of long distance, Skype is used to observe the child and conduct the parent interview. Matthew, who was born and raised in Hong Kong, is an outgoing and smart 7th grader. He is a 10-year-old Chinese boy growing up in a middle class family. He also lives with his parents and a 19-year-old sister who is a college student. Middle childhood is the best period to desc ribeRead MoreChildhood Obesity and Its Effect1260 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesChildhood obesity is considered to be a serious issue among our youth. Obesity can cause many types of physical problems, which most are aware of, but it can also cause some undesirable internal feelings within children and adolescents who suffer from it. Self-esteem, or self-worth, is important as it helps develop personality and is a major ingredient to our mental health status (Wang, F. and Veugelers, P. J., 2008). Some have said obesity may even have a negative effect on cognitive developmentRead MoreChildhood And Adolescence : Toward A Field Of Inquiry1072 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesArticle 1 Spiritual Development in Childhood and Adolescence: Toward a Field of Inquiry Yongmin, S. (2008). Children s well-being during parents marital disruption process: A pooled time-series analysis. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64(2), 472-488. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/ Yongmin attempted to show with this article how marriage can Ã¢â¬Å"changeÃ¢â¬ for a married couple when their children turns the age(s) 12-17, also known as the beginning of adolescence. His research focusesRead MoreThe Importance of Physical Activity Essay1545 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesa childÃ¢â¬â¢s development. The process of childhood development is dynamic, recognised by various fields including the influential society, inherited characteristics through genetics, and the psychological behaviour of the child. These fields all play their own roles in directly affecting the process of child development. Ã¢â¬Å"A childÃ¢â¬â¢s developmental journey is guided by three factors which include nature, nurture and the childÃ¢â¬â¢s own activityÃ¢â¬ McDevitt Ormrod (2010, p. 4). Physical, cognitive and social-emotionalRead MoreIntegration Of Arts And The Arts798 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIntegration of Arts Paper The incorporation of music, movement, and the arts is critical to a young childÃ¢â¬â¢s learning, growth and development. Each of these creative arts allow children to make meaningful connections and retain the information being taught in the classroom. It also allows for children to focus more in the classroom and it improve their behavior as well. Multiple intelligences also play a role in music, movement, and the arts. By using these creative arts in the classroom, educatorsRead MoreHow Interaction Affects Our Social And Cognitive Functioning1249 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesideas in a way that no other species can, it also enables us to help one another with our development and progress. In this essay I am going to discuss how interaction, with both people and the environment, can help develop both our social and cognitive functioning. It is widely believed that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood plays a key role in the development of that individual. The online article, Ã¢â¬ËEarly Childhood development: The First Five YearsÃ¢â¬â¢, states Ã¢â¬Å"The first five years create the foundation for the childRead MoreEarly Childhood : The Transitional Phase That Follows Infancy1520 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEarly childhood is the transitional phase that follows infancy. It is crucial for those that are significant in the childÃ¢â¬â¢s life to understand how they grow, develop, and learn in this stage in order to create and provide a sufficient environment. It can also help with positive development and other factors as they move into childhood. Despite the many changes this stage entails, every child is different and develops at their own pace. 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Introduction International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) are established by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). These standards facilitate in communicating the financial results of a company to its stakeholders so that they can analyse the information and take appropriate decisions regarding entering into a financial transaction with it. These standards also facilitate in comparing the financial results of two and more companies that prepare their financial statements by complying with the IFRS (IFRS 2013). The local Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) is standards set by the local regulatory authority of that country, which is adopted by companies that are based in the concerned country. The selected country for this paper is the UK. This paper focuses on the difference between UK GAAP and IFRS. The three significant differences between UK GAAP and IFRS are illustrated by representing them in the form of financial statements. These differences are related to intangible assets, provisions and government grants. There will also be a discussion of problems faced by the entity in adoption of IFRS for the first time in a chosen country. Besides this, the impact of adoption of IFRS on the financial performance and position of a company is also discussed in this paper (Ernst Young 2012). Differences between IFRS and UK GAAP There is an existence of significant differences between IFRS and UK GAAP. Under IFRS, the statement of changes in equity includes the statement of recognised gains and incomes. The cash flow statement includes both cash, as well as, cash equivalents and there is a classification of interest and dividends on the basis of their nature into three categories i.e. operating, investing and financing. Under certain circumstances, there is an involvement of bank overdraft in cash and cash equivalents. In contrast the UK GAAP states that there is a separate presentation of recognised gains and loses and changes in the shareholders fund. There is no consideration given to cash equivalents under these standards in the cash flow statement and there is also an inclusion of bank overdrafts in cash. The interest, dividends and taxes are classified into different categories of an item (KPMG 2003). The cost of inventory is calculated by using LIFO method, whereas in UK GAAP, LIFO method is rarely used by companies for the evaluation of inventory in their financial statements. The cost of agricultural produce is recorded at cost or net realisable value, whichever is less, but in IFRS, the cost of agricultural produce is recorded at the value attained by subtracting point of sale cost from the fair value. Under IFRS, some of the equity shares are classified as liabilities. In addition to this, the dividend earned on these shares are treated as interest on the accrual basis in income statement, whereas there is a requirement to record all shares under shareholders funds and the shares that are owned by employees under ESOP scheme are treated as assets of a company under UK GAAP (World GAAP Info 2008). In addition to this, the distribution of dividend is recognised in the year to which it relates. There is a requirement to differentiate the amount of dividend and shareholders fund with regard to the equity and non equity. The revaluation of financial statements under IFRS is done either on the mandatory basis or on the option basis. Despite this, the adjustments are made on the basis of current purchasing power if the currency of an enterprise is hyperinflationary. On the other hand, under UK GAAP, there is a rare possibility of revaluation of assets, except property; along with this, there is no additional requirement to be fulfilled by the company under the hyperinflationary nature of currency (Ernst Young 2011). Under IFRS, power to control is the foundation of consolidation and subsidiaries are treated as financial assets if they are excluded from the consolidation. The computation of minority interests is done either on the basis of carrying amounts of subsidiaries or on consolidation; while in UK GAAP, there is a requirement of consolidation only if dominant influence is exercised regardless of the existence of formal power. The treatment of subsidiaries is done as equity if these are excluded from consolidation and have a significant influence on the business of the company (World GAAP Info 2008). In addition to this, the evaluation of minority interest is done on the basis of carrying amounts on consolidation. Under IFRS, there is an exclusion of those acquired assets and liabilities, which do not adhere with the requirements of recognition under other standards. In addition to this, the income statement recognises negative goodwill. There is a capitalisation of transaction cost and the cost of acquisition includes expenses related to the registration and issue of equity securities. On the other hand, UK GAAP recognises those acquired assets and liabilities which do not meet the requirements of recognition under other standards. There is no capitalisation of transaction costs and it involves deduction of cost of issuing shares from gross proceeds and it has been credited to equity shareholders funds (KPMG 2003). There is an exclusion of property under operating lease from investment property and it is recorded at the fair value along with changes in the income statement under IFRS. The dual use investment property is classified only if the separate parts can be sold separately. On the other hand, the investments held under operating leases are considered under investment property and only that part is classified under investment property which can be let out not necessarily to be disposed off separately under UK GAAP. Besides this, there is recognition of investment property at the open market value in the financial statements and the record of changes is to be treated under reserves in this system (World GAAP Info 2008). The impairment is calculated annually for those tangible fixed assets that have a life span of 50 years and the monitoring of cash flows is to be done for five years after a value in use in UK GAAP, whereas impairment is not calculated annually for property, plant and equipment under IFRS and there is no requirement of monitoring after a specified time period. Under UK GAAP, there is an inclusion of provisions in financial statements regarding the sale and termination of an operation. This type of provision includes estimated operating losses for the future period. On the other hand, there is no requirement to make provisions for future operating losses under IFRS. Under UK GAAP, there is no deduction of government grants from the cost of fixed assets to which these grants relate, whereas government grants related to the fixed assets are deducted from the cost of that particular asset (KPMG 2003). The main difference for the treatment of intangible assets between UK GAAP and IFRS is that the intangibles, such as development costs are capitalised and amortised under IFRS, but it is not either capitalised or amortised under UK GAAP. In the IFRS system, it is recorded only if there is a possibility of recovering of the deferred taxes, whereas under UK GAAP, the amount which is not likely to be recovered related to deferred tax assets is recorded. When deferred taxes are related to intra-group transactions, the tax rate of selling entity is applicable under UK GAAP while the tax rate of buying entity is applicable on the deferred taxes associated with the intra-group transactions in IFRS (Ernst Young 2011). There is an adjustment of goodwill only if the recovery of deferred tax assets exceeds the original estimate in IFRS. In addition to this, it is provided from the perspective of the re-evaluation of a financial statement of hyperinflationary subsidiaries; while there is no recognition of deferred taxes under these conditions, as well as, there is no recognition of adjustment of goodwill when the amount of acquisition of deferred tax assets exceeds the estimated value under UKGAAP. Under IFRS, deferred tax assets are not discounted, whereas in UK GAAP, deferred taxes can be discounted (World GAAP Info 2008). Under IFRS, the profits and losses from the repurchase or settlement of debt are not considered as extraordinary items, whereas it is treated under interest in UK GAAP. There is a separate accounting standard for hedging under IFRS while no detailed information is provided under UK GAAP. The financial instruments that are not classified under derivatives can be used for hedging the exposure of risk related to currency fluctuations in IFRS but these instruments cannot be used for hedging the risk related to the foreign currency fluctuations under UK GAAP. No mandatory format related to the income statement is given under IFRS but companies that follow UK GAAP have to present their income statement in a format given under these standards. The treatment of contingent assets and liabilities under UK GAAP guide that companies have to provide full information to stakeholders as per the rules and regulations of Companies Act 1985, even if this results in serious bias. On the other hand, only some information can be disclosed rather than full disclosure under IFRS. The recognition of unrealised profits in the income statement is allowed under IFRS, whereas it is allowed to recognise the unrealised profits in income statement under UK GAAP. There are no guidelines given for share based payments under IFRS, whereas expenses related to shares are recorded on the basis of intrinsic value under UK GAAP. Under UK GAAP, extra ordinary items are removed effectively and specific rules are mentioned under these standards for the treatment of these ite ms. In contrast, IFRS do not provide any disclosure regarding extraordinary items and these are present in certain special circumstances. There is a need to disclose detailed information related to the credit risk, currency risk, and interest rate risks before the effect of hedging under IFRS, whereas the information related to these risks is provided in the financial statements after the effect of hedging in case of UK GAAP. Preparation and Translation of Financial Statements The PR Solutions was established in 2012. PR Solutions started its business with cash of 500000. The entity started its business in London and was setup to provide the consultancy service in the United Kingdom. PR Solutions follows the accounting standards of the United Kingdom (UK GAAP). Before starting the company, the promoters conducted some research and development for 50000. Following are the some basic accounting treatment in the United Kingdom Development Cost (Intangible asset) is not capitalised and it is deducted from the income statement when it is incurred. Provisions for future losses are recognised using estimated future operating losses. Government Grants are not deducted from the cost of fixed assets. Prepaid Expenses are recognised in the balance sheet. Transactions in Year 2012 Company has purchased a land for 200000 in the year 2012. Company has incurred a development cost of 20000 related to the business work. As per UK GAAP, development costs are intangible assets and it is the part of administrative cost. PR Solutions has created the provision for future losses of 20000. These losses are expected to be incurred due to the close down of the unit 2 in the year 2014. Expected total from the sale of unit 2 is about 40000, which is divided in two years i.e. 20000 in 2012 and 20000 in 2013. Company has received grants from the government for building its infrastructure. The gross amount of the grant is 80000 to be used in two years i.e. 40000 in the year 2012 and 40000 in the year 2013. This grant is to be utilised for construction of the building. The cost incurred in the building construction is 150000. Rent paid for office building is 2000 per month. Rent for Building Paid in Advance for 2 months is 4000. Salary paid to Employees is 30000. The Revenue from the operation received in cash is 100000. The tax rate on the entity is 30 % of the taxable income. Transactions for Year 2013 Entity has recognised the provision for future losses relating to the demolishment of unit 2, which amounts to 20000. The Entity has used its remaining government grants of 40000 Cost incurred for construction of building amounts to 100000 from which 40000 is utilised from the government grant. Rent paid for office building is 2000 per month. Rent for Building Paid in Advance for 2 months of 4000. Salary paid to Employees is 50000. The Revenue from the operation received in cash is 180000. The tax rate on the entity is 30 % of the taxable income. Prepaid rent recognised in this year. Entity has paid its previous year Tax of 13,800. Income Statement for Year 2013 (According to UK GAAP) Particulars Amount in Total Revenue From operations 180000 Add: Government Grant 40000 Less: Administrative Cost(Rent) 24000 Less: Other Operating expenses ( provision) 20000 Less: Salary Paid 50000 Profit before Tax 126000 Less: Tax Expense @ 30% 37800 Profit 88200 Balance Sheet as on 31st December, 2013 Particulars Opening balance A B C D E F G H J Closing balance Fixed assets Building 150,000 100,000 250,000 Land 200,000 200,000 Current assets Cash 252,000 -100,000 -20,000 -4,000 -50,000 180,000 -13,800 244,200 Prepaid Rent 4,000 -4,000 4,000 4,000 Total assets 698,200 Equity Share capital 500,000 500,000 Profit 32,200 -20,000 40,000 -24,000 -50,000 180,000 -37,800 120,400 Current liabilities Government Grants 40,000 -40,000 0 Provision 20,000 20000 40,000 Current tax liability 13,800 37,800 -13,800 37,800 Total equity and liabilities 698200 Translation table for IFRS Opening Statement of Financial Position at December, 31st, 2013 Particulars UK GAAP Govt. Grant Development Cost Provision for Future Losses Deferred tax IFRS Fixed assets Building 250,000 -40,000 210000 Land 200,000 200000 Intangible assets 0 12,000 12000 Current assets Cash 244,200 40,000 284200 Deferred Tax Asset 7200 7200 Prepaid Rent 4,000 4,000 Total assets 698,200 717400 Equity Share capital 500,000 500,000 Profit 120,400 12,000 40000 7200 179600 Current liabilities Government Grants 0 0 Provision 40,000 -40000 0 Current tax liability 37,800 37800 Total equity and liabilities 698,200 717400 Income statement translation table Particulars UK GAAP Government Grant Development Cost Provision Deferred tax IFRS Revenue 180000 180000 Government Grant 40000 0 40000 Development Cost 0 12000 12000 Administrative Cost -24000 -24000 Provision -20000 20000 0 Salary Paid -50000 -50000 Tax Paid -37800 7200 -30600 Profit 88200 127400 Working Notes Calculation of Deferred Tax Adjustment for: UK GAAP IFRS Difference Deferred tax (30%) A for asset, L or liability Intangible assets 0 12000 -12000 -3600 L Provision 40000 0 40000 12000 A Deferred tax Asset Opening Statement of Financial Position 8400 Less: previously created 1200 Total 7200 IFRS financial statements for Year 2013 Statement of Financial Position at December, 31st Particulars 2012 2013 Fixed assets Building 110000 210000 Land 200000 200000 Intangible assets 16,000 12000 Current assets Cash 292000 284200 Deferred Tax Asset 1200 7200 Prepaid Rent 4,000 4,000 Total assets 623200 717400 Equity Share capital 500,000 500,000 Profit 69400 179600 Current liabilities Government Grants 40,000 0 Provision 0 0 Current tax liability 13,800 37800 Total equity and liabilities 623200 717400 Statement of Comprehensive Income for 2013 Particulars Amount Revenue 180000 Government Grant 40000 Development Cost 12000 Administrative Cost -24000 Provision 0 Salary Paid -50000 Tax Paid -30600 Profit 127400 Statement of Changes in Equity for the year ended December, 31st, 2013 Particulars Share Capital Profit Total Balance at Jan, 1, 2013 500,000 69,400 569,400 Total Comprehensive Income for 2013 127,400 127,400 Balance at Dec, 31, 2013 500,000 196,800 696,800 Cash Flow Statements for the year 2013 Particulars Amount in Cash flow from operating activities Profit before tax provision 144,000 Amortization of intangible asset -4,000 Cash generated (used) from operations 140,000 Working Capital changes Deferred Tax Assets -6,000 Government Grants -40,000 Income tax paid -13,800 Net cash from operating activities 92,200 Cash flow from investing activities Investment in Building -100,000 Net cash from Investing activities -100,000 Cash flow from financing activities Net increase in cash and cash equivalents -7,800 Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period 292000 Cash and cash equivalents at end of period 284200 The impact of the first adoption of IFRS on the entitys financial position and performance Opening Statement of Financial Position reconciliation Particulars UK GAAP Note Difference IFRS Fixed assets Building 150,000 40000 110000 Land 200,000 200000 Intangible assets 0 2 16,000 16,000 Current assets Cash 252,000 40,000 292000 Deferred Tax Asset 0 4 1,200 1200 Prepaid Rent 4,000 0 4,000 Total assets 606,000 623,200 Equity Share capital 500,000 0 500,000 Profit 32,200 3 37200 69,400 Current liabilities Government Grants 40,000 1 0 40,000 Provision 20,000 5 20000 0 Current tax liability 13,800 0 13,800 Total equity and liabilities 606,000 623200 Notes The government grants are not deducted from the cost of building as per UK GAAP as government grants are related to the fixed asset i.e. building. These grants are deducted from the cost of building at the date of the opening statement of financial position i.e. balance sheet under IFRS. The development cost for the company is 20,000. As per UK GAAP, the development costs are not capitalised and 4000 will be deducted from the profit and loss account for 5 years, instead of presenting in the opening statement of financial position, whereas development costs are capitalised and 4000 is amortised each year for 5 years as per IFRS and is included in the opening balance sheet. The opening balance of retained earnings has changed due to the difference in the accounting treatment, such as government grants, inclusion of intangible assets, and non recognition of provisions and the effect of taxes applicable in the opening statement of the financial position. The changes in the deferred taxes have occurred due to three significant adjustments that have been taken in account during the translation process. These adjustments relates to provision, intangible assets and government grants. The provisions related to future losses are permitted under UK GAAP, but are restricted under IFRS due to which these are not included in the opening statement of the financial position. The first adoption of IFRS by PR Solutions has impacted its financial position in a significant manner due to the above differences in the accounting treatments under two different standards, namely IFRS and UK GAAP. Closing Statement of Financial Position reconciliation Particulars UK GAAP Note Difference IFRS Fixed assets Building 250,000 1 40000 210000 Land 200,000 0 200000 Intangible assets 0 2 16,000 12,000 Current assets Cash 244,200 40,000 284200 Deferred Tax Asset 0 4 1,200 7200 Prepaid Rent 4,000 0 4,000 Total assets 698,200 717,400 Equity Share capital 500,000 0 500,000 Profit 120,400 59200 179,600 Current liabilities Provision 40,000 3 20000 0 Current tax liability 37,800 0 37,800 Total equity and liabilities 698200 717400 Notes The UK GAAP recognises non deduction of government grants from the cost of building and the amount of government grants is subtracted from the cost of building in the opening statement under IFRS, which states that same treatment is done in the closing statement of the financial position as well. Under UK GAAP the development cost is not capitalised and not included in the closing balance sheet, but as per IFRS, the development costs are capitalised and included in the balance sheet. The provisions related to future losses are not included in the year 2013 in the closing statement of the financial position under IFRS as compared to UK GAAP, which affects the financial position of the company. The adjustments in the year 2013 related to the changes in the accounting treatment of different items, such as development costs, provisions, and government grants and taxes affect the deferred taxes for the given year. Notes There is an inclusion of development cost under IFRS, whereas there is no inclusion of development cost under UK GAAP due to which there is a positive impact on profit under IFRS. Provisions are not included in the IFRS and it is charged under the income statement in UK GAAP which has a positive impact on the profit of the company under IFRS. There is an inclusion of deferred taxes in the IFRS as compared to UK GAAP which reduces the tax liability of the company and increases its profit. Problems faced by entities in the UK by the adoption of IFRS for the first time Entities based in the UK that have adopted UK GAAP face problems at the time of implementing IFRS for the first time for preparing its financial statements. In order to change the financial statements, as per the IFRS, entities have to do analysis of those items and activities that have an impact on their financial statements. Besides this, the collection of the data which is required to make changes in the existing figures due to the changes in the procedure of accounting treatment of different items is also done by the entity. The company have to reassess the accounting policies and standards as these have a great influence on the format of financial statements. It is a very long process and requires huge amount of cost and time. Businesses also face issues related to the audit procedure of the financial position as there is a requirement to audit the financial statements fully from UK GAAP to IFRS (KPMG 2013). There is a requirement to do detailed analysis of adjustments as IFRS requires inclusion of additional adjustments related to different items that are included in the statements. The adoption of IFRS requires disclosing more information as compared to UK GAAP. Company also finds difficulty in engaging with Audit Committees before a prescribed time so as to spread awareness among them about the procedure, as well as, the impact of adoption of IFRS (KPMG 2013). At the time of adoption of IFRS for first time, company has to follow a set of procedure issued by the IASB, if these entities are adopting it after 1 January 2009 (Deloitte 2013). The treatment of deferred tax is an additional requirement under IFRS that makes the process complex and difficult. The adoption of IFRS forces entity to prepare financial statements of the year in which it is adopted, in addition to a year prior to the adopted year. It also faces difficulty with regard to treatment of taxes. This is because taxes greatly influence the amount of profit earned by the company. The company, in order to reduce its tax liabilities so as to reduce the negative impact on its profitability, has to adopt different measures (Moore Stephens). Besides this, a firm has to classify its assets and liabilities as per the accounting standards of IFRS due to the absence of recognition of some assets and liabilities under UK GAAP. There is also a need to reclassify the opening balances of as sets and liabilities of a firm as per the guidelines of IFRS (Deloitte 2013). References Deloitte. 2013. IFRS 1 First-time Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards. [Ernst Young. 2011. UK GAAP vs. IFRS. [Online]. Available at: Ernst Young. 2012. International GAAP 2012 - Generally Accepted Accounting Practice Under International Financial Reporting Standards. John Wiley Sons IFRS. 2013. About us. KPMG. 2003. IAS compared with US GAAP and UK GAAP. KPMG. 2013. IFRS Practice Issues. World GAAP Info. 2008. UK FRS.